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GRE阅读真题「TD包你懂」系列解析之Passage 58 ||GRE干货

发表时间:2021-06-08 21:00:00  来源:野望文存  浏览:次   【】【】【


市面上流传的GRE阅读机经真题有三百多篇,同时又存在多种版本的答案和解析,有些疑难题目让考生不知道听谁的,还有些版本的解析像是用谷歌翻译把同题目和选项翻译了一下。TD GRE教研组认为,GRE阅读的解析,可以讲得再清楚一点。


GRE不光有技巧,不光有快速解题法,GRE更加考察大家的逻辑硬实力,文字理解实打实的深度。良好的GRE备考应当在课堂上向老师学习快速解题法,取同取反逻辑的同时,课下扎扎实实的读懂每一句话读懂,是一切技巧使用的前提。皮之不存,毛将焉附?


有感于此,我们尝试用比较长的时间,原创一个解析,力求做到超详细,大白话,包你懂。之前为大家推送了Passage 1 - Passage 57 的解析,今天继续为大家推出Passage 58(短阅读)解析,这篇阅读一共有1段,带4道题,TD版超详细「包你懂」系列对此篇文章进行了清楚地解析。


Passage 58


Recent studies of the gender gap in the history of United States politics tend to focus on candidate choice rather than on registration and turnout. This shift in focus away from gender inequality in political participation may be due to the finding in several studies of voting behavior in the United States that since 1980, differences in rates of registration and voting between men and women are not statistically significant after controlling for traditional predictors of participation. However, Fullerton and Stern argue that researchers have overlooked the substantial gender gap in registration and voting in the South. While the gender gap in participation virtually disappeared outside the South by the 1950s, substantial gender differences persisted in the South throughout the 1950s and 1960s, only beginning to decline in 1970s.



文章解析


 

一部分
Recent studies of the gender gap in the history of United States politics tend to focus on candidate choice rather than on registration and turnout. This shift in focus away from gender inequality in political participation may be due to the finding in several studies of voting behavior in the United States that since 1980, differences in rates of registration and voting between men and women are not statistically significant after controlling for traditional predictors of participation.

白话版讲解:


最近的一些关于美国政治史上的两性间巨大差异的研究倾向于聚焦于男选民和女选民投票结果(投了哪个党、哪个候选人的票)方面的巨大差异,而不是(像以前那样)聚焦于男选民和女选民在登记投票人数和实际到场投票人数方面的巨大差异。之所以从之前的聚焦于参与上的不平等转移到聚焦于投票结果上的不平等,是由于有几个研究人们投票行为的研究都得出了这样一个结论:即从1980年以来,在考虑了对参与投票人数会有影响的几个传统因素(传统上可以依据这几个因素来预测参与投票人数)之后,男选民和女选民在登记投票人数和实际到场投票人数方面,从统计学上来看,实际差异并不大。

 

这里要解释一下,什么叫predictor。


一个人的职业,就可能是一个predictor。一般来说,假如一个人是一个大学或中学教师,他参与投票(登记投票、实际到场投票)的概率就大;没有工作的人,参与投票的概率就小。

 

一个人的资产,也可能是一个predictor。一般来说,假如一个人虽然没有工作,但有好几套房,他参与投票(登记投票、实际到场投票)的概率就大;没有资产的人,参与投票的概率就小。

 

一个人的职业、资产等,这些就叫traditional predictors。

 

女性群体恰好和无工作群体、无资产群体重合,所以考虑到其他因素后,男女参与投票的差距并不大。即文章所说的“differences in rates of registration and voting between men and women are not statistically significant after controlling for traditional predictors of participation. ”

 

control n.(实验中的)参照物、对照物;参照系统

in an experiment, an object or system that is not changed so that you can compare it with similar objects or systems that are intentionally changed

例句:A control group of non-smoking women was compared to four groups of women smokers.

设置了一个不抽烟女性组,作为四个抽烟女性组的对照组。

 

control vi.在实验中设置参照物;考虑(可能影响实验结果的外部因素)

to incorporate controls in an experiment or study ;take into account (an extraneous factor that might affect the results of an experiment)


第二部分
However, Fullerton and Stern argue that researchers have overlooked the substantial gender gap in registration and voting in the South. While the gender gap in participation virtually disappeared outside the South by the 1950s, substantial gender differences persisted in the South throughout the 1950s and 1960s, only beginning to decline in 1970s.

白话版讲解:


但是,Fullerton和Stern两个人争辩说,研究人员都忽视了南方的情况了:在南方,男选民和女选民在登记投票人数和实际到场投票人数方面,差别是非常大的。尽管到1950年时,南方以外的其他地区,男选民和女选民在参与上的差异几乎已经消失了,但是在1950年代和1960年代,在南方,这种差异还是很大的,且一直存在着,到1970年代才开始变小。




题目解析



1. Select the sentence in the passage that offers a possible explanation for a trend.


(点击空白处查看内容)


第二句话



白话版讲解:


要求选出文章中给一个趋势提供了一种可能的解释的一句话。

 

文章中第一句话是在介绍一个trend,第二句话就是介绍出现这个trend的一个可能的原因(this shift ……may be due to……)。


2. According to the passage, which of the following is true about recent studies of the gender gap in the United States politics?


A. They accurately depict voter preference in the South prior to 1980.


B. They have been unduly influenced by changes in voter preferences.


C. They fail to recognize important factors affecting levels of voter participation.


D. They do not pay sufficient attention to the effect regional differences have on voter preference.


E. They are more concerned with the choices that male and female voters make than with the frequency with which they vote.


(点击空白处查看内容)



白话版讲解:


问根据文章,下列关于最近的关于美国政治中的两性差异的几个研究的说法,哪一个是对的?

E选项中的more concerned with the choices that male and female voters make对应文章第一句话中的focus on candidate choice,E选项中的with the frequency with which they vote对应文章第一句话中的registration and turnout。

turnout的意思是“到场投票人数”(the number of people voting in an election)。

 

有些同学误选了D选项。D选项是说“地区差异对选民的偏好(投谁的票不投谁的票)有影响,最近的几个研究对这种影响没有给与足够的注意。”文章说的意思是地区差异对选民的参与投票有影响,而不是实际投了谁的票有影响。所以D选项错误


3. The author of the passage cites “several studies of voting behavior in the United States” to


A. suggest that rates of change in political participation have moderated.


B. provide a possible explanation for a propensity among certain researchers.


C. indicate an area of research that is particularly promising.


D. speculate about the implications of a change.


E. suggest that a particular area of study has not been very productive.


(点击空白处查看内容)



白话版讲解:


问文章的作者提到“several studies of voting behavior in the United States”是为了……?

文章第一句话说的有些研究人员关注点转移的现象,也就是一种propensity,文章第二句话是在给第一句话提出解释。所以B选项正确。

 

propensity的意思是“倾向”an inclination or natural tendency to behave in a particular way

 

例句:She has a propensity for breaking plates.

她总会打破碟子。

 

A“暗示政治参与情况的变化速度已经放缓了”

B“给某些研究人员的一个倾向提供了一种可能的解释”

C“指出一个尤其有发展前景的研究领域”

D“推测一个变化可能会带来的后果”

E“暗示一个具体研究领域一直没有什么成果”


4. The passage is primarily concerned with


A. establishing the chronology of a transition.


B. discussing a perceived oversight.


C. explaining the reasons for a change.


D. evaluating an underlying assumption.


E. confirming the merits of a claim.


(点击空白处查看内容)



白话版讲解:


问全文的修辞功能。

A“证实一个转变过程中的事件先后顺序”

B“讨论一个被觉察到了的忽视”

C“解释发生一个变化的几个原因”

D“评估一个潜在的臆断”

E“证实一个断言的几个优点”

 

B选项中的oversight对应文章第二部分第一句话,所以B选项正确。其他选项的内容,都是文章没有提到的。



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